It is important to understand life in China at the time of Confucius in order to develop a better appreciation of the reforms he was attempting to institute. The age in which Confucius lived was characterized by social anarchy.
Confucius believed China could be saved if the people would seek for the good of others, a practice of their ancestors.
A common feature of Chinese religion prevalent at Confucius’ time was the veneration of ancestors.
If the family provides for the ancestors’ needs, then the ancestors will in turn cause good things to happen to their relatives. However, if the ancestors are neglected, it is believed that all sorts of evil can fall upon the living.
Consequently, the living sometimes live in fear of the dead.
Source: “Handbook of Today’s Religions.” Confucianism. Accessed April 01, 2013. http://www.greatcom.org/resources/handbook_of_todays_religions/03chap04/default.htm.
Confucius changed history by not only creating the Confucianism, but also changing the education system in ancient China.
-Confucius’ appearances in Chinese texts are a sign of his popularity and utility among literate elites during the Warring States (403-221 BCE), Qin (221-206 BCE), and Han periods.
– The succeeding Han emperors and their ministers seized upon Confucius as a vehicle for the legitimation of their rule and the social control of their subjects.
-Confucius started the shi (“retainer” or “knight”) class.
-These shi became lordless anachronisms and fell into genteel poverty and itinerancy.
-Shi’s knowledge of aristocratic traditions helped them remain valuable to competing kings, who wished to learn how to regain the unity imposed by the Zhou and who sought to emulate the Zhou by patterning court rituals and other institutions after those of the fallen dynasty.
Source: “Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.” Confucius . Accessed March 28, 2013. http://www.iep.utm.edu/confuciu/
Confucius came up with the idea that man is the center of the universe: man cannot live alone, but with other human beings
There was a system of education built upon the teaching of Confucius.
Confucianism has influenced the Chinese attitude toward life, set the patterns of living and standards of social value, and provided the background for Chinese political theories and institutions.
Confucius’ idea also has spread from China to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam and has aroused interest among Western scholars.
The Shih Shu (Four Books), compilations of the sayings of Confucius and Mencius and of commentaries by followers on their teachings, are the Lun Yü (Analects), a collection of maxims by Confucius that form the basis of his moral and political philosophy; Ta Hsüeh (The Great Learning) and Chung Yung (The Doctrine of the Mean), containing some of Confucius’s philosophical utterances arranged systematically with comments and expositions by his disciples; and the Mencius (Book of Mencius), containing the teachings of one of Confucius’s great followers.
Source: “Confucianism.” Confucianism. Accessed March 27, 2013. http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialSciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Confucianism.htm.
Confucius (551?-479? BCE), according to Chinese tradition, was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought.
“Confucius,” accessed Mar 26, 2013, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/
Two thousand three hundred and forty years ago, there was a rather decisive battle happened. This battle between Athens and Persia changed not only the Ancient Greece, but also the whole human being’s life. The Athenians, proudly won the battle. And the mainly reasons for their victory were the strong Athenian army and their democratic government.
One of the reason why the Athenians could win the Battle of Marathon is that they had a stronger army. The Persians were fighting for their freedom which they never wanted to lose. “Despite their numerical superiority the Persians were unable to withstand the disciplined and determined hoplites fighting in defense of their freedom.” Armor are very important in a battle. The Athenians took advantage of their good armor well. “the Greeks also had better armor and longer spears” Their enemy’s bad luck helped in some way, too. “In the flight to their ships, many of the Persians were bogged down in the marshes.” As a result, there were more Persians got killed in the battle than Athenians, according to the Herodotus. “Herodotus maintained that the Athenians lost 192 men, the Persians 6400.” “Herodotus’ figure are probably erroneous, but it is likely that the Athenians were outnumbered, if not as outrageously as he suggests then at least by a factor of two to one.” However, a strong could not be the only reason. There are more factors why the Athenians won the battle of Marathon.
Why did Athens win the battle of marathon?
Athens could win the battle of marathon because they had a stronger army, help from other countries,
1)Athens had an army much stronger than Persia.
“Despite their numerical superiority the Persians were unable to withstand the disciplined and determined hoplites fighting in defense of their freedom.”
-numerical superiority the Persians were unable to withstand the disciplined
“the Greeks also had better armor and longer spears”
“In the flight to their ships, many of the Persians were bogged down in the marshes.”
-Persians were bogged down in the marshes
“Herodotus maintained that the Athenians lost 192 men, the Persians 6400.”
“Herodotus’ figure are probably erroneous, but it is likely that the Athenians were outnumbered, if not as outrageously as he suggests then at least by a factor of two to one.”
-There were more Persians got killed than Athenians
2)Other country decided to help Athens.
-“The Plataeans did not reject their advice, so while the Athenians were conducting their sacrifices to the twelve gods, the Plataeans sat down at the altar and offered themselves to the Athenians.
Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy, The fifteen decisive battles of the world: from marathon to Waterloo , 46–151
Herodotus, The landmark Herodotus (New York : Pantheon Books, c2007.), 470-495
There is some information about the Battle of Marathon in the book “Ancient Greece– A political, social, and Cultural story”, written by a lot of people. (Mainly Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts.) From page 187 to 192